What is it and how are High Blood Pressure Symptoms and Signs? Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. Blood pressure itself is the power of blood flow from the heart that drives the walls of blood vessels (arteries). The strength of this blood pressure can change from time to time, influenced by what activity the heart is doing (for example, while exercising or in a normal / resting state) and the resistance of the blood vessels.
Hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure is higher than 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mmHG). The figure of 140 mmHG refers to systolic readings, when the heart pumps blood throughout the body. Meanwhile, the number 90 mmHG refers to diastolic readings, when the heart is relaxed while refilling its chambers with blood.
Keep in mind that systolic pressure is the maximum pressure due to heart contraction, while diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure between contractions (resting heart).
Hypertension is a disease that is often called the “silent killer” because this disease does not cause long-term symptoms. However, this disease may result in life-threatening complications like heart disease.
If not detected early and treated promptly, hypertension can lead to serious complications of coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, blindness, diabetes, and many other dangerous diseases. Stroke (51%) and coronary heart disease (45%) are the highest causes of death from hypertension in Indonesia.
What should be normal blood pressure?
Understanding normal blood pressure numbers is not easy, especially with terms like “systolic”, “diastolic”, and “millimeter of mercury” (mmHg). However, if you want to keep blood pressure under control, it’s important to know what is considered normal, and when blood pressure is said to be too high, aka hypertension.
Normal blood pressure ranges from 120/80 mmHG. When systolic and diastolic numbers are in this range, you can be called having normal blood pressure. Someone just called having high blood pressure or suffering from hypertension if the blood pressure reading shows 140/90 mmHG. Blood pressure that is too high will disrupt blood circulation.
However, having normal blood pressure does not mean you can relax. When your systolic number is between 120-139, or if the diastolic number (lower number) ranges from 80-89, this means you have “prehypertension”. Although this number cannot be considered hypertension, it is still above the normal rate. Healthy people are also advised to take precautionary measures to keep blood pressure in the normal range, while avoiding the risk of hypertension and heart disease.
If your blood pressure reading is above 180/110 mmHg, or if you have a systolic or diastolic pressure that is higher than this number, you run the risk of facing a very serious health problem. This figure shows a condition called hypertensive crisis.
If your blood pressure reaches this level, your doctor will usually measure it again after a few minutes. If it is still the same height, you will immediately be given emergency high blood medicine.
How common is hypertension (high blood pressure)?
Almost everyone can experience high blood pressure. The World Health Organization (WHO) said the number is currently increasing globally. The increase in adults around the world who will suffer from hypertension is predicted to surge to 29 percent by 2025.
Increased cases of hypertension also occur in Indonesia. Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) data owned by the Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Health in 2013 showed that 25.8 percent of Indonesia’s population has high blood pressure.
The National Health Indicators Survey (Sirkesnas) report showed the number of sufferers increased to 32.4 percent. This means there is an increase of about seven percent from previous years. The exact number in the real world might be higher than this because many people don’t realize they have high blood pressure.
High Blood Pressure Symptoms, Signs and Characteristics
What are the high blood pressure symptoms and signs and characteristics?
Someone who has high blood pressure usually does not show any characteristics or only experience mild symptoms.
But in general, high blood pressure symptoms, sign a and the characteristics are:
- Severe headache
- Blurred vision
- Ears ringing
- Irregular heartbeat
- Chest pain
- Difficulty breathing
- Blood in urine
- The sensation of beating in the chest, neck or ears
There may be other high blood pressure symptoms not listed above. Consult your doctor for more complete information.
When should I see a doctor?
Contact a doctor as soon as possible if:
- Higher blood pressure than usual (more than 120/80 mm Hg)
- Nosebleeds, headaches, or dizziness
- Suffers from side effects after taking high blood pressure medication
Because hypertension is a hidden disease and difficult to detect, you need to have your blood pressure checked regularly if you are at risk of developing high blood pressure. Seek immediate medical attention or hospital treatment if you notice any signs or symptoms of abnormality.
If a severe headache appears accompanied by a nosebleed, this is a sign and symptom of a hypertensive crisis, an emergency condition. Immediately call and seek help from a health service provider.
What causes hypertension (high blood pressure)?
Hypertension whose cause is not clearly called primary hypertension. But high blood pressure can also be caused by lifestyle and poor diet.
Take for example, smoking. Smoking just one cigarette can cause a direct surge in blood pressure and can increase systolic blood pressure levels by 4 mmHG. The nicotine in tobacco products stimulates the nervous system to release chemicals that can constrict blood vessels and contribute to high blood pressure.
Most eating salty foods, which contain sodium (processed foods, canned foods, fast food), and foods or drinks that contain artificial sweeteners can also increase cholesterol and / or high blood pressure.
High blood pressure can also appear as a side effect of kidney failure medications and treatment for heart disease. This condition is called secondary hypertension. Birth control pills or cold medicines sold at drug stores can also cause high blood pressure. Pregnant women or those using hormone replacement therapy may also experience high blood pressure.
High blood pressure due to medications may become normal after stopping taking medication, but in some cases, blood pressure still rises for several weeks after stopping drug use. You should ask your doctor if abnormal blood pressure continues to occur.
Children under 10 years often experience high blood pressure due to other diseases, such as kidney disease. In such cases, the child’s blood pressure will return to normal after taking high blood pressure medication.
Who is at risk of developing hypertension (high blood pressure)?
Most cases of high blood pressure in adolescents are classified as primary hypertension. Like adults, the causes of primary hypertension are not fully understood. Some adolescents appear to inherit a tendency to get high blood pressure from their parents, while others fall victim to a bad lifestyle, which results in obesity and body shape which is what doctors call “decreased cardiovascular fitness”.
In some cases, hypertension in adolescents is based on certain medical conditions that have already occurred, such as heart or kidney disease.
But in general, several factors that can increase a person’s risk of developing hypertension are:
- Uric acid
- High cholesterol
- Kidney illness
- Alcohol addiction
- Women who use birth control pills
- People who have parents or grandparents with high blood pressure.
Having no risk factors does not mean you will not get hypertension. This factor is only as a reference. Consult your doctor for further details.
The information provided is not a substitute for medical advice. ALWAYS consult your doctor.
Can high blood pressure be treatment?
High blood pressure or hypertension is a permanent condition in which blood pressure is continuously high or more than 140/90 mmHg. You cannot feel hypertension. Many people don’t even know they have high blood pressure. Hypertension can appear without physical symptoms, which silently damage blood vessels and cause serious health threats.
Because hypertension is not a disease that stands alone, but a syndrome or a collection of symptoms of the disease in the body. Hypertension can be caused by other diseases, such as heart disease or kidney disease. If your high blood pressure is caused by another underlying disease, hypertension can be cured by treating the root cause – if the underlying disease is indeed possible to cure.
However, the majority of cases of high blood pressure (around 85% to 90%) in the world are classified as primary hypertension. In most cases, the primary hypertension that most people suffer is influenced by heredity (genetic) or an unhealthy lifestyle / environment.
In some cases, the cause of primary hypertension cannot be determined. This type of hypertension cannot be cured, it can only be controlled with high blood pressure medication.
Thus, if your blood pressure drops, it does not mean you are recovering completely from hypertension. You still have the potential risk of complications due to hypertension if the symptoms are not managed and blood pressure rises again.
Medication & diagnosis
What are the high blood pressure medicines that are often used?
Hypertension treatment is important to reduce the risk of death from heart disease.
Some medications that doctors often prescribe to treat hypertension are:
- Diuretics: chlorotiazide, chlorthalidone, hydrochlorotiazide / HCT, indapamide, metolazone, bumetanide, furosemide, torsemide, amiloride, triamterene)
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, benazepril hydrochloride, perindopril, ramipril, quinapril hydrochloride, and trandolapril)
- Beta-blockers: atenolol, propranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, betaxolol, acebutolol, bisoprolol, esmilol, nebivolol, and sotalol)
- Calcium channel blockers: amlodipine, clevidipine, diltiazem, felodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nimodipine, and nisoldipine)
- Alpha-blockers: doxazosin, terazosin hydrochloride, and prazosin hydrochloride
- Vasodilators: hydralazine and minoxidil
- Central-acting agents: clonidine, guanfacine, and methyldopa.
High blood pressure medication must be taken regularly and the right dose for the benefits can be felt.
What are the usual tests for high blood pressure (hypertension)?
Hypertension is diagnosed through blood pressure testing techniques. Technical inspection will be carried out several times to ensure accurate results. If your blood pressure is high, your doctor may ask you to check again and track it down repeatedly.
If your blood pressure is more than 140/90 mmHg during a normal examination, the doctor will diagnose you with high blood pressure. If you suffer from chronic diseases, such as diabetes or kidney disease, and blood pressure over 130/80 mm Hg, you are also diagnosed with hypertension.
The doctor will ask you to lie on your back to measure your blood pressure. Blood pressure will be lower in children than adults and will increase gradually as the child grows. You need to ask your doctor to find out more about normal blood pressure.
It should also be understood that the results of blood pressure readings at the doctor and at home can be different. The reason is, if you feel nervous every time you are in the hospital or in a doctor’s office, your blood pressure can rise at each visit so that the results seen from the doctor’s examination that your blood pressure is generally high. This phenomenon is also called “white coat hypertension”. Therefore, your doctor may want to measure your blood pressure more than once and away from the practice room. This will help determine whether you only have white coat hypertension or if you really have high blood pressure.
If you have white coat hypertension, your risk of high blood pressure may continue to increase in the future. Therefore, it is important to check blood pressure by a doctor or other health care professional at least every six to 12 months. This will give you plenty of time to make lifestyle changes that might help.
What are the lifestyle changes that can be made to overcome hypertension (high blood pressure)?
Reporting from media releases uploaded on the PD PERSI page, it was said that a decrease in blood pressure up to 2 mmHg can reduce 7 percent risk of death from heart attack and 10% risk of death from stroke.
On the other hand, the symptoms of hypertension must not only be treated with medical drugs. In addition to consuming drugs, you also have to make positive lifestyle changes. Some positive lifestyle changes that you can make to help deal with hypertension are:
- A balanced and low salt diet
- Regular exercise
- Do not smoke and do not drink alcohol
- Try to lose weight if you are obese
The various methods mentioned above help reduce blood pressure so that blood pressure is always normal – while reducing your risk of complications of other diseases due to hypertension, such as heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. That means, managing blood pressure is a lifetime commitment.
You can also do lower high blood pressure naturally. For example, by learning proper deep breathing techniques and muscle relaxation. Both of these can help relieve stress that might appear as a side effect of hypertension. Moreover, emotional stress affects your blood pressure.
So learn to sort out life priorities and stay away from stress triggers as an equal accompaniment effort to manage your blood pressure.
It is true that a combination of prescription drugs and healthy lifestyle changes can help you prevent experiencing an increase in blood pressure. However, you also need to regularly check your blood pressure regularly and follow a doctor’s treatment plan to be able to monitor and control your health condition.
As you get older, preventative measures become more important. Systolic pressure usually slowly rises after you reach the age of 50. Keep your weight ideal, which can be achieved with a healthy diet and exercise. Having a healthy weight will reduce your chances of developing hypertension.